This paper will present a short introduction to mirroring two disks using Solstice DiskSuite. Although not as robust as Veritas Volume Manager (VxVM) (also distributed by Sun as the "Sun Enterprise Volume Manager" (SEVM)), DiskSuite is nonetheless still a popular choice for doing basic disk mirroring. This tutorial will be presented using an actual mirroring session with comments and explanations interspersed.
Note that the following procedure is for DiskSuite 4.2, which runs on Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7. This procedure will also work with DiskSuite 4.2.1, distributed with Solaris 8. Solstice DiskSuite is now known as Solaris Volume Manager in Solaris 9 and later. There are a few fundamental changes between the two versions, particularly in the size of state database replicas. The terms DiskSuite and Solaris Volume Manager are both used in this document to refer to the software. Where necessary, specific versions will be pointed out.
The first step to setting up mirroring using DiskSuite is to install
the DiskSuite packages and any necessary patches for systems prior to Solaris 9. SVM is part of the
base system in Solaris 9.
The latest recommended version of DiskSuite is 4.2 for systems running Solaris 2.6 and Solaris
7, and 4.2.1 for Solaris 8.
There are currently three packages and one patch necessary to install DiskSuite 4.2. They are:
SUNWmdn(Optional SNMP log daemon)
106627-19(obtain latest revision)
For DiskSuite 4.2.1, install the following packages:
SUNWmdnr(Optional log daemon configs)
SUNWmdnu(Optional log daemon)
For Solaris 2.6 and 7, to make life easier, be sure to update your
MANPATH variables to add DiskSuite's
directories. Executables reside in
man pages in
/usr/opt/SUNWmd/man. In Solaris 8, DiskSuite
files were moved to "normal" system locations (
path updates are not necessary.
In this example we will be mirroring two disks, both on the same controller. The first disk will be the primary disk and the second will be the mirror. The disks are:
Disk 1: c0t0d0 Disk 2: c0t1d0The partitions on the disks are presented below. There are a few items of note here. Each disk is partitioned exactly the same. This is necessary to properly implement the mirrors. Slice 2, commonly referred to as the 'backup' slice, which represents the entire disk must not be mirrored. There are situations where slice 2 is used as a normal slice, however, this author would not recommend doing so.
The three unassigned partitions on each disk are configured to each be
10MB. These 10MB slices will hold the DiskSuite State Database Replicas, or
metadbs. More information on the state database replicas will
be presented below. In DiskSuite 4.2 and 4.2.1, a
metadb only occupies 1034 blocks
space. In SVM, they occupy 8192 blocks (4MB). This can lead to many problems during an upgrade if the
used for the
metadb replicas are not large enough to support the new larger databases.
Disk 1: c0t0d0s0: / c0t0d0s1: swap c0t0d0s2: backup c0t0d0s3: unassigned c0t0d0s4: /var c0t0d0s5: unassigned c0t0d0s6: unassigned c0t0d0s7: /export Disk 2: c0t1d0s0: / c0t1d0s1: swap c0t1d0s2: backup c0t1d0s3: unassigned c0t1d0s4: /var c0t1d0s5: unassigned c0t1d0s6: unassigned c0t1d0s7: /export
The database state replicas serve a very important function in DiskSuite. They are the repositories of information on the state and configuration of each metadevice (A logical device created through DiskSuite is known as a metadevice). Having multiple replicas is critical to the proper operation of DiskSuite.
# metadb -a -f /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s3 # metadb -a /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s5 # metadb -a /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s6 # metadb -a /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s3 # metadb -a /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s5 # metadb -a /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s6The
-foptions used together create the initial replica. The
-aoption attaches a new database device and automatically edits the appropriate files.
Each mirrored meta device contains two or more submirrors. The meta device gets mounted by the operating system rather than the original physical device. Below we will walk through the steps involved in creating metadevices for our primary filesystems.
Here we create the two submirrors for the
filesystem, as well as a one way mirror between the meta device and its
# metainit -f d10 1 1 c0t0d0s0 # metainit -f d20 1 1 c0t1d0s0 # metainit d0 -m d10The first two commands create the two submirrors. The
-foption forces the creation of the submirror even though the specified slice is a mounted filesystem. The second two options
1 1specify the number of stripes on the metadevice and the number of slices that make up the stripe. In a mirroring situation, this should always be
1 1. Finally, we specify the logical device that we will be mirroring.
After mirroring the root partition, we need to run the
metaroot command. This command will update the root entry in
/etc/vfstab with the new metadevice as well as add the
appropriate configuration information into
/etc/system. Ommitting this step is one of
the most common mistakes made by those unfamiliar with DiskSuite. If
you do not run the
metaroot command before you reboot, you
will not be able to boot the system!
# metaroot d0
Next, we continue to create the submirrors and initial one way mirrors for
the metadevices which will replace the swap, and
# metainit -f d11 1 1 c0t0d0s1 # metainit -f d21 1 1 c0t1d0s1 # metainit d1 -m d11 # metainit -f d14 1 1 c0t0d0s4 # metainit -f d24 1 1 c0t1d0s4 # metainit d4 -m d14 # metainit -f d17 1 1 c0t0d0s7 # metainit -f d27 1 1 c0t1d0s7 # metainit d7 -m d17
/etc/vfstab file must be updated at this point to reflect
the changes made to the system. The / partition will have already been
updated through the
metaroot command run earlier, but the
system needs to know about the new devices for swap and
The entries in the file will look something like the following:
/dev/md/dsk/d1 - - swap - no - /dev/md/dsk/d4 /dev/md/rdsk/d4 /var ufs 1 yes - /dev/md/dsk/d7 /dev/md/rdsk/d7 /export ufs 1 yes -Notice that the device paths for the disks have changed from the normal style
/dev/rdsk/c#t#d#s#to the new metadevice paths,
The system can now be rebooted. When it comes back up it will be running
off of the new metadevices. Use the
df command to verify this.
In the next step we will attach the second half of the mirrors and allow the two
drives to synchronize.
Now we must attach the second half of the mirrors. Once the mirrors are
attached it will begin an automatic synchonization process to ensure that
both halves of the mirror are identical. The progress of the synchonization
can be monitored using the
metastat command. To attach the
submirrors, issue the following commands:
# metattach d0 d20 # metattach d1 d21 # metattach d4 d24 # metattach d7 d27
With an eye towards recovery in case of a future disaster it may be a good idea to find out the physical device path of the root partition on the second disk in order to create an Open Boot PROM (OBP) device alias to ease booting the system if the primary disk fails. In order to find the physical device path, simply do the following:
# ls -l /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0This should return something similar to the following:
/sbus@3,0/SUNW,fas@3,8800000/sd@1,0:aUsing this information, create a device alias using an easy to remember name such as
altboot. To create this alias, do the following in the Open Boot PROM:
ok nvalias altboot /sbus@3,0/SUNW,fas@3,8800000/sd@1,0:aFor more information on creating OBP device aliases, refer to the following document: TechNote: Modifying the CD-ROM nvalias on an Ultra 10 (IDE based) System".
It is now possible to boot off of the secondary device in case of failure
boot altboot from the OBP.
For more information on DiskSuite, including configuring metatrans devices for filesystem transaction logging, see the second part of this document, Additional Solstice DiskSuite Topics.